top of page

Museum of pop culture - Frank Gehry


Project Specifications:

Location:

Seattle, Washington, United States

Studio:

Gehry Partners LLP

Design:

Frank Gehry

Built in:

2000

Area:

140,000 total square feet; footprint, 35,000 square feet

Category:

Concert Hall

Height:

Highest point: 85 feet at Sky Church

 


Located near the iconic Space Needle in Seattle, the Museum of Pop Culture (MoPOP) stands out with its unique and visually striking design. From the front, the building appears to be made up of three interconnected stainless steel structures in different colors - electric blue, metallic silver, and deep purple. As you walk around the building, you can see three more structures in different colors - brown, red, and gold - attached to the back of the first three structures. The building's exterior is made up of over 21,000 hand-welded stainless steel panels that shimmer in the sunlight, creating smooth, sinuous undulations across the surface of the building. The MoPOP's design, created by renowned architect Frank Gehry, is a testament to the power of architecture as a form of artistic expression.


Completed in 2000 with the financial support of Paul Allen, a Seattle native, the Museum of Pop Culture (MoPOP) is a unique architectural oddity designed by renowned architect Frank Gehry. Despite receiving praise for its innovative design, the building has also garnered criticism, with New York Times architecture critic Herbert Muschamp famously describing it as "something that crawled out of the sea, rolled over, and died." Whether one views the MoPOP as a work of art or as an eyesore, it is undeniable that the building embodies the central role of the architect as an artist within the modern museum institution.



When discussing the Museum of Pop Culture (MoPOP), it is hard to ignore the building's unique architectural form. Scholars have explored the inspiration behind the building's design, with architect Lee H. Skolnick explaining that Frank Gehry "developed [the building's form] by smashing up electric guitars and then rearranging them until an optimal composition was found." Art historian and former MoPOP curator Chris Bruce delves deeper, identifying specific influences for each component of the building's design, such as the gold section being inspired by a Les Paul "Gold Top" guitar and the purple reflective surface being inspired by Jimi Hendrix's song "Purple Haze." The MoPOP's architectural form continues to fascinate and inspire discussions about the role of art and design in contemporary culture.


 

Design Philosophy :


Renowned architect Frank Gehry is known for his use of unconventional materials and expressive forms in his designs, with a philosophy that architecture should be a form of artistic expression. This is exemplified in the design of the Museum of Pop Culture (MoPOP) in Seattle, which was inspired by the city's rock and roll music scene. The MoPOP's exterior features bold, expressive forms and vibrant colors, created using a series of interconnected steel plates that are clad in a skin of over 21,000 hand-welded stainless steel panels. These panels give the building a shimmering appearance, particularly when the sun is shining. Through the use of unexpected materials and techniques, Gehry's design for the MoPOP creates a sense of surprise and wonder.


Frank Gehry's design for the Museum of Pop Culture (MoPOP) in Seattle is a testament to his belief that architecture can be a form of artistic expression. The building's bold and expressive forms, combined with the use of unconventional materials, make it a truly unique and memorable addition to the city's skyline. The MoPOP has become one of the most iconic buildings in Seattle, standing out with its innovative design and creative use of materials..


The idea for the Museum of Pop Culture (MoPOP) in Seattle was inspired by the electric guitar that Jimi Hendrix famously destroyed after each concert. The museum's design, created by architect Frank Gehry, takes the form of a deconstructed guitar, inviting visitors to explore the spine of the instrument and learn about the birth of music. The resulting structure is a fragmented and undulating volume, resembling the shape of an amoeba. From the top, the complex appears as a collection of brightly colored, irregularly shaped structures. One of the volumes is intersected by the Seattle monorail, which travels through the interior of the museum.


In the MoPOP, Gehry used colors and textures in a unique way, symbolizing the power and fluidity of American music. The blue color was inspired by the Fender guitar, the gold by the Les Paul, and the purple by Hendrix's song "Purple Haze." The red passages pay tribute to the old vans that rockstars used to tour in. The colors change over time, reflecting the evolution of music. Everything was designed to evoke emotion and create a sense of wonder for visitors.


 

Material & Façade :

The museum's exterior is made up of a series of interconnected steel plates, which form a complex, organic shape. These steel plates are clad in a skin of over 21,000 stainless steel panels, which were hand-welded by skilled craftsmen. The stainless steel panels are highly reflective and give the building a shimmering appearance, especially when the sun is shining.



In addition to the stainless steel panels, the museum's façade also includes a number of other materials. The entrance to the museum is marked by a large, glass-enclosed lobby that is supported by a series of steel beams. The lobby is surrounded by a series of concrete piers, which help to support the weight of the building.


The Museum of Pop Culture (MoPOP) in Seattle is a visually striking building with a series of differently colored metallic skins supported by an outer concrete shell that is supported by custom-cut steel ribs. The amorphous stainless steel and aluminum skins, which are various shades of rose, silver, bronze, red, and sky blue, give the building a fluid, organic appearance reminiscent of sea life. Despite the museum's focus on music, the inspiration for its design was actually a pile of trash found in an electric guitar shop near Frank Gehry's office in Santa Monica, California. This influence is seen in the metal track-like structures on the east side of the building, which resemble mangled guitar fretboards at a massive scale.



The interior of the museum is characterized by its exposed structure, which helps to dampen sound from competing exhibits. The MoPOP encloses 140,000 square feet with three entrances on different levels - two on the north end and one on the south end. The project was funded by Microsoft co-founder Paul G. Allen.


The Museum of Pop Culture, or MoPOP, boasts several notable interior features, including the "Sky Church," a multi-story space with a projection screen and live music, and a towering two-story guitar sculpture located on a central interior avenue that separates temporary and permanent exhibits. The permanent exhibits at MoPOP are largely drawn from the personal collections of founder Paul Allen and focus on musical artists such as Jimi Hendrix and Nirvana, as well as movie genres such as horror, science fiction, and fantasy. Visitors can also try their hand at music-making in the "Sound Lab," a fully equipped music studio within the museum.



 

The construction :



Construction on the Museum of Pop Culture, or MoPOP, began in 1998 and was completed in 2000. The building, designed by renowned architect Frank Gehry, is composed of interconnected steel plates that create a complex, organic shape and are clad in 21,000 hand-welded stainless steel panels. The museum's exterior, with its bold, expressive forms and vibrant colors, is inspired by Seattle's rock and roll music scene. Inside, MoPOP holds a collection of pop culture artifacts, including interactive exhibits, film and television memorabilia, and music-related items.



The construction of the Museum of Pop Culture required the efforts of architects, engineers, and construction workers, and was a significant undertaking. Despite the challenges, the museum was completed on schedule and has since become a well-known cultural landmark in Seattle. The roof of the museum is composed of 21,000 stainless steel panels in shades of purple, silver, and gold, as well as aluminum and painted red and blue. Each panel is custom-shaped and sized using laser guidance and a French 3D program called Catia, originally developed for aerospace engineering.



Computer-aided design played a crucial role in the construction of the Museum of Pop Culture, although Frank Gehry also used sketching and over 100 "maquettes" to rough out the forms. Gehry's office employed the CATIA modeling software, developed by Dassault Systems in France and primarily used for design in the aerospace and automotive industries, to create an electronic 3D model that was so central to the design process that traditional paper drawings were not needed. Instead, lasers guided by data from the electronic model were used to cut the building's elements, making the Museum of Pop Culture one of the first major architectural works to use this method of fabrication. Inside the museum, the spaces are organized into six thematic areas that celebrate the music world and provide educational and interactive experiences for the public. Each area is designed to accommodate the specific exhibits and activities it houses.


 

Drawings :







 

Sustainable Practices :


One of the key sustainable features of the museum is its use of natural light. The museum's exterior is made up of a series of interconnected steel plates, which form a complex, organic shape. These steel plates are clad in a skin of over 21,000 stainless steel panels, which were hand-welded by skilled craftsmen. The stainless steel panels are highly reflective and allow natural light to enter the building, reducing the need for artificial lighting during the day.


In addition to its use of natural light, the museum also has a number of other sustainable features. These include a green roof, which helps to reduce the amount of heat absorbed by the building and improve its energy efficiency, as well as a rainwater harvesting system, which captures and stores rainwater for use in irrigation and other non-potable water applications.


References

Alpers, Svetlana. “The Museum as a Way of Seeing.” In Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display, edited by Ivan Karp and Steven D. Lavine. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 25–32.


“The Bilbao Effect: How 20 Years of Gehry’s Guggenheim Transformed the City.” BBC Arts, October 16, 2017. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HL3drXNNWQVq7tpC6pMRsJ/the-bilbao-effect-how-20-years-of-gehrys-guggenheim-transformed-the-city.


Bishop, Claire. Radical Museology; or, What’s “Contemporary” in Museums of Contemporary Art? London: Koenig Books, 2013.


Borow, Zev. “Wonder Walls.” Spin, January 1998, 42.


Bruce, Chris. “Spectacle and Democracy: Experience Music Project as a Post-Museum.” In New Museum Theory and Practice: An Introduction, edited by Janet Marstine, 129–151. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006.


Cain, Abigail. “How the White Cube Came to Dominate the Art World.” Artsy, January 23, 2017. https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-white-cube-dominate-art.


Castleman, Amanda. “MoPop [sic].” AFAR, accessed November 30, 2019. https://www.afar.com/places/museum-of-pop-culture-seattle.


Crawford, Leslie. “The Museum That Saved a City.” Financial Times, October 5, 2007. https://www.ft.com/content/de652f06-70b5-11dc-98fc-0000779fd2ac.


Greenberg, Clement. “Art.” 1948. In Jackson Pollock: Interviews, Articles, and Reviews, edited by Pepe Karmel, 59–60. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1999.


Heathcote, Edwin, and Lorenzo Vicario. “Is the Bilbao Effect Over?” Apollo, February 27, 2017. https://www.apollo-magazine.com/is-the-bilbao-effect-over-guggenheim/.


Hood, Lindsay. “Dear Seattle, Why Do You Hate EMP?” Stranger, June 17, 2015. https://www.thestranger.com/music/feature/2015/06/17/22432407/dear-seattle-why-do-you-hate-emp.


Iovine, Julie W. “Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.” In Guggenheim New York / Guggenheim Bilbao, photographs by Ezra Stoller and Jeff Goldberg, 1–5. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999.


Kimmelman, Michael. “Critic’s Notebook; The Museum as Work of Art,” New York Times, October 20, 1997. https://www.nytimes.com/1997/10/20/arts/critic-s-notebook-the-museum-as-work-of-art.html.


KING Staff. “Experience Music Project Gets New Name: MoPOP.” KING 5 News, November 15, 2016. https://www.king5.com/article/entertainment/experience-music-project-gets-new-name-mopop/281-352411386.


Krauss, Rosalind. “The Cultural Logic of the Late Capitalist Museum.” October 54 (Autumn 1990): 3–17. JSTOR.


Krens, Thomas. “Foreword: Culture and Catharsis: Building Bridges, Not Walls.” In Can Art Aid in Resolving Conflicts: 100 Perspectives, edited by Noam Lemelshtrich Latar, Jerry Wind, and Ornat Lev-er, IX–XVI. Amsterdam: Frame Publishers, 2019.


Manifesta. “About the Biennial.” Accessed November 25, 2019. https://manifesta.org/biennials/about-the-biennials/.


Mangat, Annu. “What the Local Architects Are Saying about EMP.” Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, June 15, 2000. https://www.djc.com/special/emp2000/architects.html.


Marton, Andrew. “Fort Worth’s Modern Museum of Art Hosts Exhibit of ‘80s New York Art.” Washington Post, October 3, 2014. https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/museums/fort-worths-modern-museum-of-art-hosts-exhibit-of-80s-new-york-art/2014/10/02/6b7b83e4-45c1-11e4-9a15-137aa0153527_story.html.


The Masticator [pseud.]. “The Experience Music Project.” Masticator, September 10, 2006. http://themasticator.blogspot.com/2006/09/experience-music-project.html.


May, Philip. From High Tech to High Plains: An Englishman’s RV Journey across America to Discover Himself and His Family. Self-published, 2010.


McGivern, Hannah. “In Pictures: Six Global Guggenheim Museums That Never Happened.” Art Newspaper, November 24, 2017, https://www.theartnewspaper.com/gallery/six-global-guggenheim-museums-that-never-happened.


McNeill, Donald. The Global Architect: Firms, Fame, and Urban Form. New York: Routledge, 2009.


Moynihan, Colin, and David D. Kirkpatrick. “Long-Delayed Guggenheim Abu Dhabi Moves Ahead.” New York Times, April 26, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/26/arts/design/long-delayed-guggenheim-abu-dhabi-moves-ahead.html.


Muschamp, Herbert. “Architecture; The Library That Puts on Fishnets and Hits the Disco.” New York Times, May 16, 2004. https://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/16/arts/architecture-the-library-that-puts-on-fishnets-and-hits-the-disco.html.


Newhouse, Victoria. Towards a New Museum. New York: Monacelli Press, 1998.


O’Doherty, Brian. Inside the White Cube: The Ideology of the Gallery Space. Santa Monica: Lapis Press, [1976] 1986.


Pacheco Flores, Agueda. “What to Do with Michael Jackson’s Legacy? Seattle Tiptoes around It.” Crosscut, March 15, 2019. https://crosscut.com/2019/03/what-do-michael-jacksons-legacy-seattle-tiptoes-around-it.


Rauen, Marjorie. “Reflections on the Space of Flows: The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.” Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 30, no. 4 (2001): 283–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/10632920109597318.


Reising, Russell. “The Secret Lives of Objects; The Secret Stories of Rock and Roll: Cleveland’s Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum and Seattle’s Experience Music Project.” American Quarterly 53, no. 3 (September 2001): 489–510, Project MUSE.


Riding, Alan. “A Gleaming New Guggenheim for Grimy Bilbao.” New York Times, June 24, 1997. https://www.nytimes.com/1997/06/24/arts/a-gleaming-new-guggenheim-for-grimy-bilbao.html.


Rybczynski, Witold. “The Bilbao Effect.” Atlantic, September 2002. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2002/09/the-bilbao-effect/302582/.


Sansi, Roger. “Spectacle and Archive in Two Contemporary Art Museums in Spain.” In The Thing About Museums: Objects and Experience, Representation and Contestation, edited by Sandra Dudley, Amy Jane Barnes, Jennifer Binnie, Julia Petrov, and Jennifer Walklate, 219–229. London: Routledge, 2012.


Seven, Richard. “After 10 Years, Experience Music Project Is Still Perplexing.” Seattle Times, June 5, 2010. https://www.seattletimes.com/pacific-nw-magazine/after-10-years-experience-music-project-is-still-perplexing/.


Skolnick, Lee H. “Towards a New Museum Architecture: Narrative and Representation.” In Reshaping Museum Space: Architecture, Design, Exhibitions, edited by Suzanne MacLeod, 118–130. London: Routledge 2005.


Vogel, Sabine B. Biennials: Art on a Global Scale. Vienna: Springer, 2010.


von Moos, Stanislaus. “A Museum Explosion: Fragments of an Overview.” In Museums for a New Millennium: Concepts, Projects, Buildings, edited by Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani and Angeli Sachs, 15–27. 2nd ed. Munich: Prestel, 2001.


Wilson, Kathleen. “Is Paul Allen Experienced?” Stranger, June 15, 2000. https://www.thestranger.com/seattle/is-paul-allen-experienced/Content?oid=4133.


Zabel, Igor. “Manifesta 3.” Art Journal 39, no. 1 (2000): 19–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00043249.2000.10791978.


Zulaika, Joseba. Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa: Museums, Architecture, and City Renewal. Reno: Center for Basque Studies, 2003.


Notes


[1] Herbert Muschamp, “Architecture; The Library That Puts on Fishnets and Hits the Disco,” New York Times, May 16, 2004, https://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/16/arts/architecture-the-library-that-puts-on-fishnets-and-hits-the-disco.html.


[2] Lee H. Skolnick, “Towards a New Museum Architecture: Narrative and Representation,” in Reshaping Museum Space: Architecture, Design, Exhibitions, ed. Suzanne MacLeod (London: Routledge, 2005), 121.


[3] Chris Bruce, “Spectacle and Democracy: Experience Music Project as a Post-Museum,” in New Museum Theory and Practice: An Introduction, ed. Janet Marstine (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006), 135.


[4] Bruce, 136.


[5] Witold Rybczynski, “The Bilbao Effect,” Atlantic, September 2002, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2002/09/the-bilbao-effect/302582/.


[6] Russell Reising, “The Secret Lives of Objects; The Secret Stories of Rock and Roll: Cleveland’s Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum and Seattle’s Experience Music Project,” American Quarterly 53, no. 3 (September 2001): 499, Project MUSE.


[7] Philip May, From High Tech to High Plains: An Englishman’s RV Journey across America to Discover Himself and His Family (self-pub, 2010), 242.


[8] Bruce, 133.


[9] Ibid.


[10] Ibid, 138.


[11] Reising, “Secret Lives of Objects,” 504


[12] Bruce, 149.


[13] KING Staff, “Experience Music Project Gets New Name: MoPOP,” KING 5 News, November 15, 2016, https://www.king5.com/article/entertainment/experience-music-project-gets-new-name-mopop/281-352411386.


[14] Bruce, 134–135.


[15] Svetlana Alpers, “The Museum as a Way of Seeing,” in Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display, ed. Ivan Karp and Steven D. Lavine (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press), 27.


[16] Alpers, 25.


[17] Michael Kimmelman, “Critic’s Notebook; The Museum as Work of Art,” New York Times, October 20, 1997, https://www.nytimes.com/1997/10/20/arts/critic-s-notebook-the-museum-as-work-of-art.html.


[18] Roger Sansi, “Spectacle and Archive in Two Contemporary Art Museums in Spain,” in The Thing About Museums: Objects and Experience, Representation and Contestation, ed. Sandra Dudley et al. (London: Routledge, 2012), 220.


[19] “The Bilbao Effect: How 20 Years of Gehry’s Guggenheim Transformed the City,” BBC Arts, October 16, 2017, https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1HL3drXNNWQVq7tpC6pMRsJ/the-bilbao-effect-how-20-years-of-gehrys-guggenheim-transformed-the-city.


[20] Alan Riding, “A Gleaming New Guggenheim for Grimy Bilbao,” New York Times, June 24, 1997, https://www.nytimes.com/1997/06/24/arts/a-gleaming-new-guggenheim-for-grimy-bilbao.html.


[21] Sansi, 221.


[22] Leslie Crawford, “The Museum That Saved a City,” Financial Times, October 5, 2007,https://www.ft.com/content/de652f06-70b5-11dc-98fc-0000779fd2ac.


[23] Thomas Krens, “Foreword: Culture and Catharsis: Building Bridges, Not Walls,” in Can Art Aid in Resolving Conflicts: 100 Perspectives, ed. Noam Lemelshtrich Latar, Jerry Wind, and Ornat Lev-er (Amsterdam: Frame Publishers, 2019), XII.


[24] Edwin Heathcote and Lorenzo Vicario, “Is the Bilbao Effect Over?,” Apollo, February 27, 2017, https://www.apollo-magazine.com/is-the-bilbao-effect-over-guggenheim/.


[25] Zev Borow, “Wonder Walls,” Spin, January 1998, 42.


[26] Zulaika, 128.


[27] Sansi, 220.


[28] Stanislaus von Moos, “A Museum Explosion: Fragments of an Overview,” in Museums for a New Millennium: Concepts, Projects, Buildings, ed. Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani and Angeli Sachs, 2nd ed. (Munich: Prestel, 2001), 21.


[29] Julie V. Iovine, “Guggenheim Museum Bilbao,” in Guggenheim New York / Guggenheim Bilbao, photographs by Ezra Stoller and Jeff Goldberg (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 2.


[30] Kimmelman, “The Museum as Work of Art.”


[31] Marjorie Rauen, “Reflections on the Space of Flows: The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao,” Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 30, no. 4 (2001): 289, https://doi.org/10.1080/10632920109597318.


[32] Kimmelman, “The Museum as Work of Art.”


[33] Newhouse, Towards a New Museum, 259.


[34] Krens, qtd. in Newhouse, 259.


[35] Colin Moynihan and David D. Kirkpatrick, “Long-Delayed Guggenheim Abu Dhabi Moves Ahead,” New York Times, April 26, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/26/arts/design/long-delayed-guggenheim-abu-dhabi-moves-ahead.html.


[36] Hannah McGivern, “In Pictures: Six Global Guggenheim Museums That Never Happened,” Art Newspaper, November 24, 2017, https://www.theartnewspaper.com/gallery/six-global-guggenheim-museums-that-never-happened.


[37] Sabine B. Vogel, Biennials: Art on a Global Scale (Vienna: Springer, 2010), 74.


[38] Sansi, as mentioned previously, also describes the “sense of emergency in this rush” to see Gehry’s masterpiece—a sense of emergency not unlike what one finds navigating through crowded pavilions at a major biennial.


[39] Sansi, 220.


[40] “About the Biennial,” Manifesta, accessed November 25, 2019, https://manifesta.org/biennials/about-the-biennials/.


[41] Ibid.


[42] Ibid.


[43] Sansi, 221.


[44] Newhouse, 245.


[45] The types of visual rhymes, it is worth noting, that form the bedrock of formal analysis of works of art!


[46] Sansi, 221.


[47] Igor Zabel, “Manifesta 3,” Art Journal 39, no. 1 (2000): 20, https://doi.org/10.1080/00043249.2000.10791978.


[48] Sansi, 221.


[49] Donald McNeill, The Global Architect: Firms, Fame, and Urban Form (New York: Routledge, 2009), 86.


[50] In a completely non-Mulveyan sense!


[51] Brian O’Doherty, Inside the White Cube: The Ideology of the Gallery Space (Santa Monica, Lapis Press, [1976] 1986), 15.


[52] I am borrowing this wonderful phrase, “gray cube,” from psychologists Andreas Gartus and Helmut Leder, who use it to a somewhat a different effect in their fascinating empirical study of viewers’ reactions to modern art and graffiti art in museum and street contexts.


[53] Richard Seven, “After 10 Years, Experience Music Project Is Still Perplexing,” Seattle Times, June 5, 2010, https://www.seattletimes.com/pacific-nw-magazine/after-10-years-experience-music-project-is-still-perplexing/.


[54] Seven, “Experience Music Project Is Still Perplexing.”


[55] Kathleen Wilson, “Is Paul Allen Experienced?,” Stranger, June 15, 2000, https://www.thestranger.com/seattle/is-paul-allen-experienced/Content?oid=4133.


[56] Agueda Pacheco Flores, “What to Do with Michael Jackson’s Legacy? Seattle Tiptoes around It,” Crosscut, March 15, 2019, https://crosscut.com/2019/03/what-do-michael-jacksons-legacy-seattle-tiptoes-around-it.


[57] Brian L. (Chicago), September 1, 2014, comment on Yelp, “Museum of Pop Culture.”


[58] Lindsay Hood, “Dear Seattle, Why Do You Hate EMP?,” Stranger, June 17, 2015, https://www.thestranger.com/music/feature/2015/06/17/22432407/dear-seattle-why-do-you-hate-emp.


[59] The Masticator [pseud.], “The Experience Music Project,” Masticator, September 10, 2006, http://themasticator.blogspot.com/2006/09/experience-music-project.html.


[60] Clement Greenberg, “Art,” 1948, in Jackson Pollock: Interviews, Articles, and Reviews, ed. Pepe Karmel (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1999), 59.


[61] Greenberg, 60.


[62] Ibid, 59.


[63] Ibid.


[64] Amanda Castleman, “MoPop [sic],” AFAR, accessed November 30, 2019, https://www.afar.com/places/museum-of-pop-culture-seattle.


[65] Gerry Gerrone, qtd. in Annu Mangat, “What the Local Architects Are Saying about EMP,” Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, June 15, 2000, https://www.djc.com/special/emp2000/architects.html.


[66] David Miller, qtd. in Seven, “Experience Music Project Is Still Perplexing.”


[67] Claire Bishop, Radical Museology; or, What’s “Contemporary” in Museums of Contemporary Art? (London: Koenig Books, 2013), 11.


[68] Rosalind Krauss, “The Cultural Logic of the Late Capitalist Museum,” October 54 (Autumn 1990): 4, JSTOR.


[69] Bishop, 12.


[70] Rybczynski, “The Bilbao Effect.”


[71] Bishop, 5.




13 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All

Comentários


bottom of page